Citation: Physicists show that superfluid light is possible (2010, October 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-10-physicists-superfluid.html (PhysOrg.com) — Superfluidity – the phase of matter that enables a fluid to move up the sides of its container – has been known about since the 1930s. Since then, superfluidity has become a prime example of how quantum effects can become visible on the macroscopic scale under certain conditions. Although physicists have previously considered the possibility of superfluid light, their results have been inconclusive until now. In a new study, physicists from France have theoretically shown that superfluid motion of light is indeed possible, and have proposed an experiment to observe the phenomena. Flatland physics probes mysteries of superfluidity More information: Patricio Leboeuf and Simon Moulieras. “Superfluid Motion of Light.” Physical Review Letters 105, 163904 (2010). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.163904 These images show the difference between the superfluid regime (left) of light and the turbulent regime (right), which is above the critical velocity. Image credit: Leboeuf and Moulieras. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further In their study published in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters, Patricio Leboeuf and Simon Moulieras from the University Paris-Sud and CNRS explain that superfluidity is the ability of a fluid to move with zero dissipation or viscosity. A fluid behaves like a superfluid only under a certain critical velocity; above this critical velocity, superfluidity disappears. Most commonly demonstrated in liquid helium, superfluidity occurs when the helium is cooled and some helium atoms have reached their lowest possible energy. At this point, these atoms’ quantum wave functions begin to overlap so that they form a Bose-Einstein condensate, in which all the atoms behave as one large atom, and their quantum nature is manifested on the macroscopic scale.Previously, investigations of the superfluid motion of light have not revealed clear evidence of the existence of a superfluid critical velocity. Although some recent experiments have observed superfluidity related to light, these experiments did not use photons, but a composite particle, called a polariton, which is a mixture of a photon and an exciton. In this study, Leboeuf and Moulieras have shown that a superfluid critical velocity does exist in a nonlinear medium. They explain how superfluid light can be observed in an array of waveguides. From a dynamical point of view, light propagating through a nonlinear medium is formally equivalent to a Bose gas of interacting massive particles. Light can travel straight along the waveguides in the longitudinal direction, or it can tunnel between adjacent guides in the transverse direction. The benefit of this set-up is that it allows the scientists to engineer different characteristics of the array and control the light’s flow.The physicists were specifically interested in what happens to a light pulse as it travels through the array at different velocities in the presence of a defect. If the light is scattered by the defect, it means dissipative processes have occurred. If the light pulse moves through the defect without changing its shape (i.e., without losing collectivity), there is no dissipation and the light has superfluid motion. Through their calculations, the physicists showed that, for certain low velocities, the transverse motion of light is superfluid with zero dissipation. When the velocity increases, dissipative processes occur that destroy the collectivity of the light’s oscillations, and superfluidity breaks down. In the future, the physicists plan to further investigate additional details of superfluid light, such as how it relates to an underlying quantum theory of light and how it is connected to Bose-Einstein condensation. They predict that superfluid motion is a general property of light that exists in a variety of scenarios, and is not limited to the waveguide array proposed here. Superfluid light could also have applications in light transport optimization.“One straightforward implication is related to transport in the presence of noise,” Leboeuf said. “Such a noise is expected to be present generically, since any material has imperfections and impurities. The impurities are responsible for the scattering of light. In the superfluid regime, we expect a light pulse to be able to propagate through a noisy medium without being affected or scattered (perfect transmission).” Leboeuf and Moulieras plan to perform their proposed experiment and are discussing the opportunity with experimental groups at the Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN) at Marcoussis, France. However, the scientists said that superfluid light is not likely to have any strange effect analogous to a superfluid flowing up a container.“The most basic ‘strange’ quantum effect that light shows related to superfluidity is, as shown in our article, dissipationless motion,” Moulieras said. “Another, though more indirect or spectacular, effect is related to quantized vortices, which were observed in laser patterns propagating through nonlinear media. Concerning other possibilities, such as fluid motion up the walls of a container, they are related, for atoms, to the forces between these atoms and a substrate, and the balance between capillary, gravity and viscous forces. We do not see a straightforward application of these concepts to photons, and therefore do not expect them for light.”
Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The line features models to meet a variety of perceived users needs. One model will be able to display images with a very high level of brightness, with projected images at up to 3,500 lumens. Another model has enhanced wireless conductivity, which allows for easy streaming of web-based presentations and video streams. The real interest here is the projectors in the line with 3D capabilities. The 3D projector must be paired with a 3D capable computer and with Casio’s proprietary 2D-3D conversion software in order to use this feature. Once that is all set up the hardware will combine a blue laser with its fluorescent element in order to create green light. Some parts of that light are then passed through the red LED’s. This allows the screen to properly shade images to appear 3D, in a style similar to the older optical lens style of 3D instead of trying to project a hologram from multiple angles, as some researchers have been demonstrating in the recent past. Currently, Casio has not given any information about when this line of projects will go on sale, or exactly how much they will cost when they do. Parties interested in making a purchase should contact the company directly for further information on the product and its potential release date. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: Casio shows off bulbless 3D-capable projectors (2011, June 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-casio-bulbless-3d-capable-projectors.html (PhysOrg.com) — Casio is currently showing off a line of lamp free projectors, designed for work in corporate and educational settings. The system eliminates the lamp by relying on a system that combines laser, fluorescent and LED technology in order to project the images in question. More information: press release 3D TV — Without the Glasses (w/ Video)
The pattern of neural activity over the two C2 arrays as well as over the relation decoding array represents the final output of the model. In this case it signifies “Key is Left of Fish”. Copyright © 2009 Kenneth Jeffrey Hayworth , Nature PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Sir Roger Penrose: The quantum nature of consciousness. Courtesy of GF2045 In the GF2045 presentation he shared with Penrose (who appeared via video), How Human Consciousness Could Be Uploaded Via Quantum Teleportation, Hameroff presented the idea that quantum teleportation25 – in which a qubit (the basic unit of quantum information) can be transmitted from one location to another without the qubit being transmitted through the intervening space – could serve as a technological vehicle for mind uploading by sending microtubular qubits from the brain to a different substrate. The potential downside to his proposal: the source qubit must be destroyed in the process due to a quantum principle known as the no-cloning theorem26, meaning that it would preclude the possibility (also discussed at GF2045) of having multiple simultaneous instances of oneself in various avatars or other substrates. Then again, the no-cloning theorem has been challenged27 – and the laws of physics being like most things, subject to change, an update may well take place by, say, 2045. Play Slides: Ray Kurzweil: Immortality by 2045. Courtesy of GF2045 It should be noted that Kurzweil’s pattern recognition thesis has been proposed in various, notably by Jeff Hawkins and Dileep George several years ago in Hierarchical Temporary Memory4 – their theoretical framework, covered in detail in Hawkins’ book, On Intelligence5 – for how the hierarchical structure of the neocortex builds a model of the world. Moreover, at Numenta, Hawkins’ and (previously) George’s company (George is now at Vicarious), Hierarchical Temporary Memory has been embodied in a technology platform being applied to pattern discovery and inference. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen , Science Translational Medicine , Journal of Neural Engineering Biomimetic hippocampus model. Courtesy of Theodore Berger As many Phys.org readers undoubtedly know, Einstein famously said that imagination is more important than knowledge – but there’s more to it. The full quote reads: I believe in intuition and inspiration. … At times I feel certain I am right while not knowing the reason. When the eclipse of 1919 confirmed my intuition, I was not in the least surprised. In fact I would have been astonished had it turned out otherwise. Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution. It is, strictly speaking, a real factor in scientific research.1 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Dr. Theodore Berger: Piecemeal repair and replacement of brain parts is coming. Courtesy of GF2045 The 2011 research paper published by Berger and his co-authors8 states that “A primary objective in developing a neural prosthesis is to replace neural circuitry in the brain that no longer functions appropriately. Such a goal requires artificial reconstruction of neuron-to-neuron connections in a way that can be recognized by the remaining normal circuitry, and that promotes appropriate interaction.” Moreover, the paper notes that “These integrated experimental-modeling studies show for the first time that, with sufficient information about the neural coding of memories, a neural prosthesis capable of real-time diagnosis and manipulation of the encoding process can restore and even enhance cognitive, mnemonic processes.” Already successful on a number of levels, the research intends to provide a hitherto unavailable treatment for damaged brain function, either a result of injury or a result of disease, like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease – and may, says Berger, be suitable for treating other neurological conditions, including epilepsy. Currently being tested in rats and non-human primates, Berger stated that human trials should begin within the next few years. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Dr. Stuart Hameroff, M.D.: Microtubules & quantum consciousness. Courtesy of GF2045 In the early 1980s Hameroff proposed that microtubules functioned as molecular computers, and in his 1987 book Ultimate Computing23 suggested downloading consciousness into microtubule arrays. He then teamed with British physicist Sir Roger Penrose in the mid-1990s to develop their controversial Orch OR24 theory in which consciousness derives from microtubular quantum computations connected to the structure of spacetime geometry. Dr. George Church: Brain healthspan extension. Courtesy of GF2045 In Bionanotech for Extending Moore’s Law, the BRAIN Project I/O & Human Genome Engineering, Church covered a few topics taken from his extensive portfolio of achievements, including;CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) devices – protein-RNA-DNA complexes that enable human genome and epigenome engineering with 20-fold higher efficiency, and programming that’s easier by over two orders of magnitude, compared to previous methodsThe first nanorobots made from hybrid materials – DNA, proteins and inorganic – comprising sensors, logic and actuators capable of distinguishing subtle differences among various cancer, normal and immune cell typesSimilar hybrid nanostructures for manufacture of ultra-fast and complex electronic, optical and quantum computingBionano storage a billion times more compact and with lower copying energy than conventional digital media. Dr. Randal Koene, neuroscientist, neuroengineer and science director of the 2045 Initiative, has been focusing on the functional reconstruction of neural tissue since 1994, introduced the multidisciplinary field of whole brain emulation, and is lead curator of the scientific roadmap with which its technological development is promoted. Working with the VU University Amsterdam, Koene led the creation of NETMORPH, a computational framework for the simulated morphological development of large-scale high-resolution neuroanatomically realistic neuronal circuitry. He is also Founder and CEO of Carboncopies.org and neural interfaces company NeuraLink Co. In his Whole Brain Emulation: Reverse Engineering A Mind presentation and soon-to-be published book with the same title, Koene describes the process of progressing from our current condition to a possible substrate-independent mind achieved by whole brain emulation and cotes a wide range of research, including the work of fellow GF2045 presenters. “There are several key points to note when discussing substrate-independent minds and whole brain emulation,” Koene tells Phys.org. “First, there’s the importance of understanding the process of iteratively working towards identifying the scope and resolution necessary for whole brain emulation. Second, it’s important to be aware of the fact that we’re on the cusp of a revolution in technology that achieves high-resolution brain activity mapping. Third, we have to be cognizant that much work is still needed in the area of turning data into useful representations and functional systems. Fourth, we need to understand what we are aiming for – that is, only with a good grasp of the goal can you properly set criteria, identify problems and compare possible solutions. Fifth,” Koene concludes, “keep in mind that where whole brain emulation used to be beyond the scope of what was discussed in science labs, it’s now the target for the cutting-edge neuroscience researchers around the world, including those invited to speak at GF2045.”Koene’s presentation and upcoming book also contains recent updates in whole brain emulation, including: A proposal by Michel Maharbiz at UC Berkeley for the development of what he’s termed neural dust – a high density interface to the mammalian brain for wireless neuronal communication, signal detection and recordingThe role of system identification – the iterative process of discovering how an unknown system transforms input into output – in emulating neural tissueHow quantum physics and other candidate mechanisms may or may not be relevant to understanding brain functionThe trade-off between more complex neural data gathering tools and more difficult computational problems A look forward to 2018 – the projected date of successfully emulating the brain of the fruit-fly DrosophilaNew approaches to addressing consciousness and self-awareness”Given these efforts,” Koene tells Phys.org, “the three most exciting are a June 12, 2013 the National Institutes of Health BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) Initiative summit with the explicit aim of 1ms resolution in vivo sampling from every neuron in a brain)11 whole brain emulation being recognized as a valid and desirable research target by the researchers attending the Brain Researchers’ dinner prior to GF2045; and brain activity mapping projects at MIT and UC Berkeley developing microscopic wireless neural interfaces to record vast amounts of data directly from individual neurons.”Dr. Ken Hayworth, who received his doctorate for demonstrating how the human visual system encodes spatial relations among objects13, is Founding President of the Brain Preservation Foundation, Senior Scientist at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Janelia Farm Research Campus, a pioneer in connectomics – the production and study of comprehensive maps of the brain’s neural connections – and an active advocate for whole brain preservation, mind uploading and substrate independent minds. , Physical Review Letters Play Slides: Dr. Theodore Berger: Towards a Hippocampal Neural Prosthesis: Implantable Biomimetic Microelectronics to Restore/Enhance Memory Function. Courtesy of GF2045 In Tools for Analyzing and Engineering the Brain, Dr. Ed Boyden, is Associate Professor of Biological Engineering and Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT. He leads the Synthetic Neurobiology Group, which develops optogenetic tools and 3D microfabricated neural interfaces for analyzing and engineering the brain by:using light to enable activation and silencing of neural circuit elements enabling control and readout of neural activity developing robotic methods for automatically recording intracellular neural activity and performing single-cell analyses in the living brain Dr. Theodore Berger, David Packard Professor of Engineering, Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Neurobiology, and Director of the Center for Neural Engineering at the University of Southern California, gave the most groundbreaking presentation of the Congress – one that also received a standing ovation. In Engineering Memories: A Cognitive Neural Prosthesis for Restoring and Enhancing Memory Function, Berger discussed his extraordinary research in the development of biomimetic models of hippocampus to serve as neural prostheses for restoring and enhancing memory and other cognitive functions. Berger and his colleagues have successfully replaced the hippocampus – a component of the cortex found in humans and other vertebrates that transforms short-term memory into long-term memory – with a biomimetic VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integrated circuit) device programmed with the mathematical transformations performed by the biological hippocampus. These transformations, which define the essential memory function of the hippocampus, were first determined through extensive experimental studies of hippocampal neurons and circuits during learning and memory. Then, animals were injected with a drug that suppressed hippocampal function, and thus suppressed new long-term memories. By using one array of electrodes to connect the input of the VLSI chip to the hippocampus (upstream from the damaged region) and a second array of electrodes to connect the output of the VLSI chip to the hippocampus (downstream from the damaged region), the implanted VLSI chip mimics the structure of the nerve tissue in the hippocampus and, in the following sequence, detects incoming neuron activity temporally encoded as short-term memory representations replicates the hippocampal function of transforming this representation into the neural code (or, in Berger’s words, space-time code) used to form long-term memories stimulates electrodes to deliver the appropriate output to the parts of the brain where long-term memories are represented , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Hayworth is also the co-inventor of the Tape-to-SEM process for high-throughput volume imaging of neural circuits at the nanometer scale, and has designed and built several automated machines to implement this process. (Tape-to-SEM connects an automated tape-collection mechanism to an ultramicrotome – a tool used to cut extremely thin slices of material, known as sections, with very tight tolerances. This allows the collection of thousands of ultrathin tissue sections on one long continuous plastic film tape with no human intervention. The tissue tape is then stained and imaged in a scanning electron microscope, or SEM.) In addition, Hayworth has envisioned a Connectome Observatory14 as a key milestone for mind uploading. Dr. Theodore Berger Hippocampal neural prosthesis. Courtesy of GF2045 Play Slides: Jeff Hawkins: Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM): A new computational paradigm based on cortical theory. Courtesy of Numenta Interestingly, regarding Kurzweil’s best-known concept, the technological Singularity, the term was actually first introduced in its non-astrophysical context by now-retired San Diego State University mathematics professor Vernor Vinge in his 1981 novella True Names6 – and which he discussed at length in his 1993 paper, The Coming Technological Singularity7. (As it turns out, Vinge and Kurzweil discussed the Singularity in 2002.) Play Dr. Ed Boyden: A light switch for neurons. Courtesy of TED Dr. George Church is professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, Director of PersonalGenomes.org (the world’s only open-access information source of human genomic, environmental and trait data), Director of the NIH Center for Excellence in Genomic Science, and a renowned molecular geneticist and pioneer in genomics and synthetic biology who introduced the first methods for direct genome sequencing, molecular multiplexing and genetic barcoding. Author of Regenesis12 – his view of a future made possible by synthetic biology – Church’s innovations in next-generation genome sequencing and cell/tissue engineering and synthesis resulted in new privacy, biosafety, and biosecurity policies; medical genomics companies Knome, Alacris, AbVitro, GoodStart, and Pathogenica; and synthetic biology firms LS9, Joule, Gen9, and Warp Drive. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Berger has already been able to identify the environmental stimulus that is encoded in a given member form the coding pattern itself. Even more remarkably, have shown that neural code captured from one animal can be transferred into a VLSI device implanted in a second animal – and the second animal that then acts as if it had formed the memory itself. How connections in the brain must change to form memories could help to develop artificial cognitive computers Dr. Ed Boyden: Extending ourselves beyond our brains. Courtesy of GF2045 More specifically, optogenetics is a neuromodulation technique using genetically-encoded reagents developed these reagents from natural photosensory and photosynthetic proteins that, when expressed in specific types of neurons, enable the neurons’ electrical activities to be precisely driven or silenced in response to millisecond pulses of light. In terms of animal models and clinical translation9, optogenetics-based research has reportedly led to insights into a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, autism, schizophrenia, drug abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression. Even more remarkably, in a research paper published just days before this article10, scientists at MIT reported that they “created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram–bearing cells in the hippocampus,” adding that their data “demonstrate that it is possible to generate an internally represented and behaviorally expressed fear memory via artificial means.” Ray Kurzweil: Immortality by 2045. Courtesy of GF2045 Kurzweil’s brain reengineering approach is based largely on what he terms the Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind (PRTM), which he says describes the basic algorithm used by the neocortex – a brain structure found only in mammals that has evolved into its most complex form in human beings, and where perception, memory, language, reasoning, and abstract thought occur. Kurzweil proposes that the neocortex is hierarchically organized into some 300 million pattern recognizers, each one a 100 neuron cluster arranged in a vertical column, with columns (rather than individual neurons) communicating with one another. His main assertion is that the brain uses these hierarchical pattern recognizers for virtually all aspects of thought, not just for perception. Journal information: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Citation: The world according to Itskov: Futurists convene at GF2045 (Part 2) (2013, August 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-08-world-itskov-futurists-convene-gf2045_1.html , Science Futurists, visionaries, scientists, technologists, philosophers, and others who take this view to heart convened on June 15-16, 2013 in New York City at Global Futures 2045 International Congress: Towards a New Strategy for Human Evolution. GF2045 was organized by the 2045 Strategic Social Initiative founded by Russian entrepreneur Dmitry Itskov in February 2011 with the main goals of creating and realizing a new strategy for the development of humanity – one based upon our unique emerging capability to effect self-directed evolution. The initiative’s two main science projects are focused largely on Transhumanism – a multidisciplinary approach to analyzing the dynamic interplay between humanity and the acceleration of technology. Specifically, the 2045 Initiative’s projects seek to (1) enable an individual’s personality to be transferred to a more advanced non-biological substrate, and (2) extend life to the point of immortality – and those skeptical about the likelihood of achieving these goals should consider Arthur C. Clarke’s laws of prediction2: 1. When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong. 2. The only way of discovering the limits of the possible is to venture a little way past them into the impossible. 3. Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.The first speaker on GF2045’s second day was inventor, futurist and author Ray Kurzweil, who Immortality By 2045 presentation was focused on reverse engineering the brain. While much of his presentation was familiar to those who have followed his work on technology trend analysis and the Singularity, his material on the brain – also appearing in his recently-published How to Create a Mind3, and in part the purpose of his joining Google (to work on new projects involving machine learning and language processing) – focused on ideation rather than implementation. , Biophysical Journal More information: The world according to Itskov: Futurists convene at GF2045 (Part 1)References 1Cosmic Religion: With Other Opinions and Aphorisms (1931) by Albert Einstein; also in Einstein on Cosmic Religion and Other Opinions and Aphorisms (2009) by Albert Einstein (Kindle version) 2Hazards of Prophecy: The Failure of Imagination in the collection Profiles of the Future: An Enquiry into the Limits of the Possible (1962, rev. 1973, this edition published 2000) 3How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed (2012) by Ray Kurzweil (Kindle version) 4 Sequence memory for prediction, inference and behavior, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 12 May 2009 vol. 364 no. 1521 1203-1209, doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0322 (PDF) 5On Intelligence by Jeff Hawkins and Sandra Blakeslee (2005) (Kindle version) 6True Names by Vernor Vinge in The Collected Stories of Vernor Vinge (2002) (Kindle version) 7The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era 8A cortical neural prosthesis for restoring and enhancing memory, Journal of Neural Engineering Volume 8 Number 4, doi:10.1088/1741-2560/8/4/046017 (PDF) 9Optogenetics and Translational Medicine, Science Translational Medicine, 20 March 2013: Vol. 5, Issue 177, p. 177ps5, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003101 10Creating a False Memory in the Hippocampus, Science 26 July 2013: Vol. 341 no. 6144 pp. 387-391, doi:10.1126/science.1239073 11Physical Principles for Scalable Neural Recording, arXiv:1306.5709v3 12Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves by George M. Church and Ed Regis (2012) (Kindle version) 13Explicit Encoding of Spatial Relations in the Human Visual System: Evidence from Functional Neuroimaging, University of Southern California PhD Thesis (PDF) 14Electron Imaging Technology for Whole Brain Neural Circuit Mapping, International Journal of Machine Consciousness 04, 87 (2012), doi:10.1142/S1793843012400057 15Theoretical study of photochemical hole burning in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers, The Journal of Physical Chemistry 1988, 92 (8), pp 2214–2219, doi:10.1021/j100319a026 16Quantum coherence spectroscopy reveals complex dynamics in bacterial light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2), PNAS January 17, 2012 vol. 109 no. 3 706-711, doi:10.1073/pnas.1110312109 (PDF) 17Coherently wired light-harvesting in photosynthetic marine algae at ambient temperature, Nature 463, 644-647 (4 February 2010), doi:10.1038/nature08811 (PDF) 18Resonance effects indicate a radical-pair mechanism for avian magnetic compass, Nature vol. 429, 13 MAY 2004 (PDF) 19Magnetic Compass of Birds Is Based on a Molecule with Optimal Directional Sensitivity, Biophysical Journal Volume 96, Issue 8, 3451-3457, 22 April 2009, doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2008.11.072 (PDF) 20Could Humans Recognize Odor by Phonon Assisted Tunneling?, Physical Review Letters Volume 98 Issue 3 038101 (2007), doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.038101 21Molecular Vibration-Sensing Component in Human Olfaction, PLoS ONE 8(1): e55780 (2013), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055780 (PDF) 22The relation between quantum mechanics and higher brain functions: Lessons from quantum computation and neurobiology (PDF) 23Ultimate Computing: Biomolecular Consciousness and NanoTechnology by Stuart Hameroff (1987) 24Orchestrated Objective Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: The “Orch OR” Model for Consciousness 25Teleporting an Unknown Quantum State via Dual Classical and EPR Channels, Physical Review Letters vol. 70, pp 1895-1899 (1993) (PDF) 26The No-Cloning Theorem, Classical Teleportation and Quantum Teleportation, Superdense Coding (PDF) 27Quantum copying: Beyond the no-cloning theorem, arXiv:quant-ph/9607018, doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.54.1844, (PDF) Dr. Ken Hayworth: How to create a Connectome Observatory of the mouse brain and beyond. Courtesy of telexlr8 In his GF2045 talk, Preserving and Mapping the Brain’s Connectome, Hayworth spoke to the concepts and technologies involved in reaching these goals, starting with his central thesis that “our identity is encoded in the structural connections among our brain’s neurons.” In terms of neural imaging, for example, Hayworth points out that with FIBSEM (Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy) – one type of electron microscopy neuroscientists commonly use – preserved neural tissue can be visualized down to resolution of roughly six nanometers, allowing researchers to directly see each neuron’s synapses and dendrites. Moreover, this level of detail includes the ability to directly and indirectly (the latter using molecular probes) image elements of the synaptome – the number and types of special proteins, receptors and neurotransmitters involved in long-term learning and memory – at each synapse; and the epigenome, (learning-based DNA methylation and histone modifications) in the nucleus of each neuron. The outstanding question, says Hayworth, is precisely which features of the synaptome and epigenome need to be preserved to retain memory and identity in each species. That said, he adds, our ability to scan and verify is also rapidly improving through new types of electron microscopy, such as Cryo-TEM (Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy), that can image at a resolution of three angstroms – 50 times greater FIBSEM – where brain proteins and even individual atoms can be directly seen. , PLoS ONE Explore further Dr. Ken Hayworth: GF2045. Courtesy of Adam Ford One of the most hotly-debated topics in neuroscience – and biology in general – is the role and relevance of quantum effects in living organisms. Dismissed by scientists for many years with assertions that quantum effects do not scale to macroscopic levels, could not be viable in the warm, wet conditions characterizing biological environments, and are simply not relevant in neural processes, recent research indicates that these assertions may be flawed assumptions rather than incontrovertible facts. It is now generally recognized, for example, that photosynthetic organisms – plants, bacteria15,16, and marine algae17 – have evolved to take advantage of quantum effects. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that quantum processes are at work in migratory robin navigation18,19, and, with some debate, human olfaction20,21 – and on September 17-18 2012, noted scientists gathered at the Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Surrey, for the Quantum Biology: Current Status and Opportunities workshop. Quantum biology had come into its own – but quantum neurobiology22? Not so much.Enter Dr. Stuart Hameroff, an anesthesiologist, professor at the University of Arizona and quantum consciousness theorist whose fundamental thesis is that consciousness itself is a quantum phenomenon occurring in the intraneuronal cytoskeletal protein structures known as microtubules. © 2013 Phys.org. All rights reserved.
Citation: Researchers devise broad-bandwidth amplifier that ups gain by more than 10 db (2014, October 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-10-broad-bandwidth-amplifier-ups-gain-db.html Explore further © 2014 Phys.org (Phys.org) —A team of researchers with members from the University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed an improvement to a broad-bandwidth amplifier that detects microwave photons allowing them to up the gain by more than 10 db. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team describes the idea behind their amplifier and how it might be used in future superconducting applications. Finnish team devise nanomechanical microwave amplifier with near least possible noise generation The purpose of the newly developed amplifier, like those before it, is to determine the state of a quantum bit in a superconducting device—it’s done by applying a microwave tone. A Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) is used inside to allow for using a very weak tone in the process. The JPA is actually an oscillating resonator that has a Josephson conductor. This arrangement allows researchers to read a qubit without destroying its state information, as it happens in real time, and in certain circumstances, to actually control it.The goal of the work by the team was to devise a way to overcome the problem of phase mismatch in JPAs so that they could achieve a higher gain over a broad bandwidth. They used a technique known as “resonant phase matching” to up the gain in their JPA—which was achieved by adding several resonating elements into the transmission line. The amplifier is part of an effort by researchers to read and control qubits in superconducting materials, which can involve measuring a single photon in a microwave signal. The result was a design for an amplifier that could be used to create a small device consisting of a transmission line that included subwavelength resonant inclusions that could achieve a gain of 20 dB, saturation power of −98 dBm and a bandwidth of 3 GHz.The Josephson junction type at the heart of the amplifier is typically made by placing an insulator between two superconducting materials. The JPA serves as an inductor serving in the role of a modulated parameter when it’s pumped by a microwave signal.The next step for the team will be creating a device that uses their new amplifier to perform actual measurements of qubits in a superconducting system, possibly taking measurements in a cryogenic broadband microwave application. More information: Resonant Phase Matching of Josephson Junction Traveling Wave Parametric Amplifiers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 157001 – Published 6 October 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.157001 (PDF). On Arxiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.2346ABSTRACTWe propose a technique to overcome phase mismatch in Josephson-junction traveling wave parametric amplifiers in order to achieve high gain over a broad bandwidth. Using “resonant phase matching,” we design a compact superconducting device consisting of a transmission line with subwavelength resonant inclusions that simultaneously achieves a gain of 20 dB, an instantaneous bandwidth of 3 GHz, and a saturation power of −98 dBm. Such an amplifier is well suited to cryogenic broadband microwave measurements such as the multiplexed readout of quantum coherent circuits based on superconducting, semiconducting, or nanomechanical elements, as well as traditional astronomical detectors. Resonantly phase-matched traveling wave parametric amplifier. Credit: Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 157001. Journal information: Physical Review Letters This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Waiting periods reduce deaths from guns, study suggests (2017, October 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-10-periods-deaths-guns.html Explore further (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers with Harvard Business School has found evidence that they claim shows gun deaths decline when states enact waiting period laws. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Michael Luca, Deepak Malhotra and Christopher Poliquin describe their study and discuss their results. More information: Michael Luca et al. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619896114AbstractHandgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a “cooling off” period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that imposed a temporary waiting period on a subset of states. Gun laws requiring domestic abusers to surrender firearms could save lives There is no debate regarding the numbers of people that are killed each year in the United States from bullet wounds—good records exist. The average is now up to 33,000 each year. What remains up for debate is what to do about it. Some individuals and groups have proposed enacting laws restricting gun sales, while others vehemently object to any such restrictions, citing their right to bear arms as spelled out in the Constitution. Somewhere in the middle, there are possible ways to reduce gun violence by enacting less restrictive laws. One such approach is to mandate that anyone buying a gun must wait a specified number of days after the purchase before taking possession of it. The idea is that a waiting period reduces murders and suicides because it gives those gun buyers time to cool off and think a little bit more about their plans before obtaining a gun. Unfortunately, evidence of whether this actually happens has been scant because the U.S. government has enacted laws disallowing the government from funding studies seeking answers to such questions. In this new effort, the researchers circumvented that problem by asking for and receiving funding directly through their own institution.The study consisted of two parts: The first looked at differences in gun death rates between states that had waiting periods and those that did not over the period between 1970 and 2014. The second part consisted of looking at changes in gun death rates in states that enacted waiting periods after passage of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act in 1994, which essentially forced all states to enact waiting periods.Results from the first part of the study showed on average 17 percent fewer gun-related deaths for states with a waiting period (and approximately 10 percent fewer gun-related suicides). Results from the second part of the study nearly mirrored the first—the trio found that gun-related homicide deaths following passage of the Brady Bill dropped on average 17 percent while gun-related suicides dropped approximately 6 percent.The researchers suggest their findings indicate that if the U.S. were to implement a nationwide waiting period for gun purchases, the country as a whole could reduce annual gun deaths by approximately 1,700 a year. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences © 2017 Phys.org Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Citation: Study suggests use of gender-neutral terms to describe people leads to gender equality (2019, August 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-08-gender-neutral-terms-people-gender-equality.html More information: Margit Tavits et al. Language influences mass opinion toward gender and LGBT equality, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908156116 Back in 2012, people in Sweden began debating adding a new word to their language to describe people in a gender-neutral fashion. The language already had the words hon and han, for he and she respectively—the word hen was proposed to describe people without referring to their gender. By 2015, use of the new word had become commonplace, and was added to the Swedish Academy Glossary. In this new effort, the researchers wondered if widespread use of the word in Sweden had reduced male bias in general references, thereby leading to greater gender equality. To find out, they carried out three experiments that involved writing assignments by over 3000 volunteers.In the first experiment, volunteers looked at a picture showing an androgynous character walking a dog. Each was then asked to use the familiar hon or han or the new word, hen, to describe the action in the picture. In the second experiment, volunteers completed a short story about a person of unknown gender running for office. The final experiment involved soliciting volunteers’ views on women and non-males in general (LGBT and non-binary people).The researchers report that those people who used the new word, hen, to describe the dog-walking picture were less likely to use a male name for their character. They also found that people took the same amount of time to write the story about the person running for office regardless of the term they used to describe them. And they found that people who used the new word showed more positivity towards LGBT people. They conclude by suggesting that the introduction of the new word into the Swedish lexicon has led to more gender-inclusive language. They further suggest that such inclusiveness could be leading to less gender bias and the promotion of gender equality. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A pair of researchers, one with Washington University in St. Louis, the other with the University of California, has found evidence that suggests the use of gender-neutral terms to describe people promotes gender equality. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Margit Tavits and Efrén Pérez describe experiments they conducted with Swedish volunteers and what they found. Google moves to curb gender bias in translation © 2019 Science X Network CC0 public domain
— Tuesday’s shooting at STEM School Highlands Ranch, which ended with one student dead, eight others injured and two of their classmates in custody, prompted Coloradans to once again question whether these types of mass shootings are more prevalent here than elsewhere. Ultimately, it’s nearly impossible to be sure if a place is at a higher risk going forward, said Frank Farley, a professor of psychological studies in education at Temple University in Pennsylvania. “If you had suggested to anyone behind me or in this room that, within 20 years in 20 miles, we would have dealt with Columbine, the Aurora theater, Arapahoe High School, the shooting of Zack Parrish and four other deputies, we’d have thought you mad,” he said. “And yet here we are again.” During a 6 a.m. news conference the day after Colorado’s latest school shooting, District Attorney George Brauchler made a point of declaring the tragedies that have rocked the area in recent years don’t define the “kind, compassionate, caring people” who live here. If Columbine did place the Denver area at a higher risk for future shootings, the only thing parents and schools can do is consider responses, like increasing school security and reducing access to weapons, he said. Read the whole story: The Denver Post
Blending in world music with the rhythms from Kerala, Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) has organised a one of its kind choreographic production, Rain by Vijaylakshmi on 5 July.Rain is a new choreographic work in Mohiniyattam by Vijayalakshmi, the renowned Mohiniyattam dancer. This production is inspired by poet Sudeep Sen’s critically-acclaimed book of poetry, Rain. One of the verse from his book reads: ‘It is raining again, but today’s is a beautiful kind of rain…. steady, symmetrical confident, and unobtrusive. It has a kind of presence that is omnipresent without acutely announcing that it is there, like ambient music.’ Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Infusing its essence into a dance form, Vijayalakshmi interprets Rain through the idiom of Mohiniyattam, the south Indian classical dance, which through its fluidity and ability to convey emotions and moods is very suited to express the metaphor of rain.As with most of her path breaking productions, the musical arrangement in Rain is very unique.She has worked very closely with Mac Quayle, an eminent American composer, to arrange traditional Kerala rhythms, Dhrupad, Rabindra Sangeet and contemporary elements which are all brought together seamlessly into a unique blend of world music. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixIt is perhaps for the first time that Dhrupad has been incorporated into a Mohiniyattam choreographic work, rendered by the eminent torch-bearer of Dhrupad tradition, Wasifuddin Dagar.This vision was furthered by her collaboration with artistic director, Sara Baur-Harding, who also directed the documentary film on Vijayalakshmi and her mother, Beyond Grace and the 3D short film Carmen. Vijayalakshmi has always endeavoured to take Mohiniyattam to higher levels by constantly exploring uncharted territories and expanding traditional boundaries through innovative choreographies inspired from a pan-Indian and global perspective. A recipient of several prestigious national awards, she has carved a distinct niche for herself and has played a significant role in the rejuvenation of this beautiful Indian classical dance form.Head over and experience a confluence of forms.
Arab filmmaker Rania Stephan’s first feature film that sheds light on the life of Egyptian star Soad hosni will be screened in the Capital this month. The Three Disappearances of Soad Hosni is Rania Stephan’s attempt to tell the story of Soad Hosni, one of Egypt’s most famous film stars who starred in eighty-two feature films between 1959 and 1991. Stephan’ first feature film will be showcased in the capital from 3 to 18 August in the Capital. Using the technique of filmic montage, Rania Stephan creates a moving portrait of the iconic actress, in which the rumours surrounding her life and death are translated through her image as a projection of the Arab imaginary and its evolution over thirty years. Soad Hosni had fallen from a building on London’s Edgeware Road in 2001. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The film was awarded a Sharjah Biennial Prize in 2011. According to Stefan, ‘The entire film is made from images and sound taken from Hosni’s films. It is built like a tragedy in three acts that ends in death. The film operates like a kind of pre-vision on the tragic destiny of this actress’.Stephan’s film is also a celebration of popular Egyptian cinema, historically sidelined by both Arab critics and the West. ‘I wanted to give popular culture its credence, its value’, says Stephan. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixBorn in Beirut – Lebanon, Rania Stephan graduated with a degree in Cinema Studies from Latrobe University in Melbourne, Australia and a graduate degree in Cinema Studies from Paris VIII University, France. Her career in film production has been long and diverse. She has worked as a sound engineer, camera person, editor and first assistant with renowned filmmakers including Simone Bitton (Rachel, Wall, Citizen Bishara) and Elia Suleiman (Divine Intervention). Her work ranges from creative videos to raw documentaries. The Three Disappearances of Soad Hosni is her first feature film. For film buffs, this is a perfect fortnight long opportunity to witness Stephan’s work right here in the Capital. Mark your calendars.
Maharashtra has it all – from rich heritage sites to stunning beaches, wildlife sanctuaries to pretty hill stations. And of course Bollywood. To get the tourists to pick Maharashtra as their next destination, the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) held a road show in the Capital. Maharashtra has variety of spots to visit. The state is blessed with heritage sites like caves of Ajanta-Ellora, pilgrimage sites like Shirdi-Saibaba temple, hill stations like Mahabaleshwar- Panchgani and Matheran among others. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’For nature lovers wildlife sanctuaries like Bhamragarh, Bor Dam, and Dajipur are a few must visit spots. Offering the perfect opportunity to be one with nature, these sanctuaries preserve the natural habitat of the protected animals. If you are the traditional holiday person, Maharashtra has its beautiful beaches. Places like Raigad, Harihareshwar, Bhandrapule and Kunkeshwar with their postcard perfect sceneries are the best places to relax far away from the mad rush of the city. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAdventure sport enthusiasts can set their sights on the amazing wild life sanctuaries, adventure trek spots like the Shayadri Mountains or rock climbing at Karla Mountains. And then there’s Mumbai, the heart of the state that encapsulates the power of economy, the glamour of Bollywood and the crazy diversity of the entire country in one city. If India had to pick one city to be the face of the country – Mumbai perhaps would be it. If spirituality interests you, the new Buddha circuit should be on your travel list. Made of seven inner circles and 25 recently discovered sites, some of them which 2200 years or older, the Buddha circuit is open for tourists now. ‘We have discovered new sites which are open for tourists; it will serve as spiritual break-through for the visitors,’ said Jagdish Patil, MD, MTDC.With the opening of its new tourist information center at Hotel Janpath, MTDC will now cater maximum people from north India. As the Torism Minister said – they have the foreign figures, the focus is on domestic ones now.Soon MTDC will unveil centers at Lucknow and Tirupati. The center was inaugurated by Maharashtra Tourism Minister Chagan Bhujbal. Patil also spoke about safe tourism for all, ‘We are taking several progressive steps to encourage tourism in Maharashtra; many interactive sessions with tour operators will take place to understand how we can get maximum tourists to our land. Also, we have tourism police everywhere, domestic and foreign tourists can be assured of safety and pleasant experience.’If you are planning to head out of the city this festive season – pick Maharashtra, you won’t be disappointed.